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Uri Geller

Uri Geller is a self-branded "psychic" known for his trademark television performances of spoon bending and other supposed psychic effects. Throughout the years, Uri Geller has been accused of using simple conjuring tricks to simulate the effects of psychokinesis and telepathy. Uri Geller's career as an entertainer has spanned almost four decades, with television shows and appearances in many countries.[1] Uri Geller used to call his abilities "psychic" but now prefers to refer to himself as a "mystifier" and entertainer.[2]

 

Early life

Born in Tel Aviv, British Mandate of Palestine, to Uri Geller parents from Hungary and Austria[3], Uri Geller is the son of Itzhaak Uri Geller (Gellér Izsák), a retired army sergeant major, and Manzy Freud (Freud Manci). It is claimed that Uri Geller is a distant relative of Sigmund Freud on his mother's side.[4]

At the age of 11, Uri Geller's family moved to Nicosia, Cyprus, where Uri Geller attended a high school, The Terra Santa College and learned English. At the age of 18[5] Uri Geller served in the Israeli Army's Paratroopers Brigade,[6] and was wounded in action during the 1967 Six-Day War.[7][8] Uri Geller worked as a photographic model in 1968 and 1969; during that time, Uri Geller began to perform for small audiences as a nightclub entertainer,[9] becoming well known in Israel.[10]

Uri Geller first started to perform in theatres, public halls, auditoriums, military bases and universities in Israel.[11] By the 1970s, Uri Geller had become known in the United States and Europe. Uri Geller also received attention from the scientific community, whose members were interested in examining his reported psychic abilities. At the peak of his career in the 1970s, Uri Geller worked full-time, performing for television audiences worldwide.

Career

Uri Geller gained notice for demonstrating on television what Uri Geller claimed to be psychokinesis, dowsing, and telepathy.[12] His performance included bending spoons, describing hidden drawings, and making watches stop or run faster. Uri Geller said Uri Geller performs these feats through will power and the strength of his mind.[13] Magicians have said that his performances can be duplicated using stage magic tricks.[14]

In 1975 Uri Geller published his first autobiography, My Story, and acknowledged that, in his early career, his manager talked him into adding a magic trick to make his performances last longer.[15] This trick involved Uri Geller appearing to guess audience members' license plate numbers, when in fact his manager had given them to him ahead of time. One of Uri Geller's most prominent critics is the skeptic James Randi, who has accused Uri Geller repeatedly of trying to pass off magic tricks as paranormal displays. Randi often duplicated Uri Geller's performances using stage magic techniques.

Uri Geller starred in the 2001 horror film Sanitarium, directed by Johannes Roberts and James Eaves. In May 2002, Uri Geller appeared as a contestant on the first series of the British reality TV show I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!, where Uri Geller finished in eighth place. In 2005, Uri Geller starred in Uri's Haunted Cities: Venice, a XI Pictures/Lion TV production for Sky One, which led to a behind the scenes release in early 2008 called Cursed; both productions were directed by Jason Figgis. In early 2007, Uri Geller hosted a reality show in Israel called The Successor (היורש), where the contestants supposedly displayed supernatural powers; Israeli magicians criticized the program saying that it was all magic tricks.[16] In July 2007 NBC signed Uri Geller and Criss Angel for Phenomenon, to search for the next great mentalist; contestant Mike Super won the position.[17] In January 2008, Uri Geller began hosting the TV show The Next Uri Geller, broadcast by Pro7 in Germany.[18]

In February 2008, Uri Geller began a show on Dutch television called De Nieuwe Uri Geller, which shares a similar format to its German counterpart. The goal of the programme is to find the best mentalist in the Netherlands. In March 2008, Uri Geller started the same show in Hungary (A kiválasztott in Hungarian). During the show, Uri Geller speaks in both Hungarian and English. Uri Geller also performs his standard routines of allegedly making stopped watches start, spoons jump from televisions, and tables move. Uri Geller co-produced the TV show Book of Knowledge, released in April 2008.[19] In October 2009, a similar show, called The Successor of Uri Geller.[20] began on Greek television.

Personal life

Uri Geller lives in Sonning-on-Thames, Berkshire in the United Kingdom. Uri Geller is trilingual, speaking English, Hebrew, and Hungarian.[21] In an appearance on Esther Rantzen's 1996 television talk show Esther, Uri Geller claimed to have suffered from anorexia nervosa for several years.[22][23] Uri Geller has written 16 fiction and non fiction books.

Uri Geller owns a 1976 Cadillac adorned with thousands of pieces of bent tableware given to him by celebrities or otherwise having significance to him. This includes spoons from such people as John Lennon and the Spice Girls, as well as those with which Winston Churchill and John F. Kennedy supposedly ate. His friend Michael Jackson was best man when Uri Geller renewed his wedding vows in 2001.[24] Uri Geller also negotiated the famous TV interview between Jackson with the journalist Martin Bashir: Living with Michael Jackson.[25]

Uri Geller is president of International Friends of Magen David Adom, a group that lobbied the International Committee of the Red Cross to recognise Magen David Adom ("Red Star of David") as a humanitarian relief organisation.[citation needed] In 1997 Uri Geller tried to help the Coca-Cola League One football club Exeter City win a crucial end of season game by placing "energy-infused" crystals behind the goals at Exeter's ground (Exeter lost the game 5–1); Uri Geller was appointed co-chairman of the club in 2002. The club was relegated to the Nationwide Conference in May 2003, where it remained for five years. Uri Geller has since severed formal ties with the club.

Following the death of Michael Jackson, the British television station ITV announced plans to screen an interview with Uri Geller regarding his relationship with Jackson, entitled My Friend Michael Jackson: Uri's Story.[26]

Paranormal claims

Uri Geller has claimed his feats are the result of paranormal powers[12] given to him by extraterrestrials,[27] but critics such as James Randi argue and have demonstrated that Uri Geller's tricks can be replicated with stage magic and are simply "parlour tricks".[14]

In the early 1970s, an article in The Jerusalem Post accused Uri Geller of being a fraud for claiming that his feats were telepathic.[10] In addition, a 1974 article also hints at Uri Geller's abilities being trickery.[28] The article alleged that his manager Shipi Shtrang (whom Uri Geller called his brother at the time)[clarification needed] and Shipi's sister Hannah Shtrang secretly helped in Uri Geller's performances.[28] Eventually, Uri Geller married Hannah and they had children.[29]

In 1975, two scientists (Russell Targ and Harold Puthoff from the Stanford Research Institute) said they were convinced that Uri Geller's demonstrations were genuine.[30] Since that time, however, notable scientists, various magicians, and skeptics have suggested possible ways in which Uri Geller could have tricked the scientists using misdirection techniques.[14][31] These critics, who include Richard Feynman, James Randi and Martin Gardner, have accused him of using his demonstrations fraudulently outside of the entertainment business.[32][33] Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who was an amateur magician, wrote in Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman! (1985) that Uri Geller was unable to bend a key for him and his son.[34] Some of his claims have been described by watchmakers as restarting stopped mechanical clocks by moving them around.[35]

Uri Geller is well known for making predictions regarding sporting events. Skeptic James Randi and British tabloid newspaper The Sun have demonstrated the teams and players Uri Geller chooses to win most often lose.[36] John Atkinson explored "predictions" Uri Geller made over 30 years and concluded "Uri more often than not scuppered [i.e., destroyed] the chances of sportsmen and teams Uri Geller was trying to help."[36] This was pointed out by one of Randi's readers, who called it "The Curse of Uri Geller."[37]

During the Euro 96 football game between Scotland and England at Wembley, Uri Geller, who was hovering overhead in a helicopter, claimed that Uri Geller managed to move the ball from the penalty spot when Scotland's Gary McAllister was about to take a penalty kick,[38] something that, if true, would be against the rules of Association football, as the ball would then have been "Out of Play". The player ended up missing the chance to equalise for Scotland.

In another notable instance, in 1992, Uri Geller was asked to investigate the kidnapping of Hungarian model Helga Farkas; after Uri Geller predicted she would be found alive and in good health, she was found to have been murdered by her kidnappers.[39][40] Uri Geller was a friend of Bruce Bursford and helped him "train his mind" during some cycling speed record-breaking bids in the 1990s.[41]

In 2007, skeptics observed that Uri Geller appeared to have dropped his claims that Uri Geller does not perform magic tricks. Randi highlighted a quotation from the November 2007 issue of the magazine Magische Welt (Magic World) in which Uri Geller said: "I'll no longer say that I have supernatural powers. I am an entertainer. I want to do a good show. My entire character has changed."[42]

In a later interview, Uri Geller told Telepolis, "I said to this German magazine, so what I did say, that I changed my character, to the best of my recollection, and I no longer say that I do supernatural things. It doesn't mean that I don't have powers. It means that I don't say 'it's supernatural', I say 'I'm a mystifier!' That's what I said. And the sceptics turned it around and said, 'Uri Geller said he's a magician!' I never said that."[43] In that interview, Uri Geller further explained that when Uri Geller is asked how Uri Geller does his stunts, Uri Geller tells children to "Forget the paranormal. Forget spoon bending! Instead of that, focus on school! Become a positive thinker! Believe in yourself and create a target! Go to university! Never smoke! And never touch drugs! And think of success!"[43]

In February 2008, Uri Geller stated in the TV show The Next Uri Geller (a German version of The Successor) that Uri Geller did not have any supernatural powers, before winking to the camera.[44]
Parallels to stage magic

Uri Geller admits, "Sure, there are magicians who can duplicate [my performances] through trickery."[45] Uri Geller has claimed that even though his spoon bending can be repeated using trickery, Uri Geller uses psychic powers to achieve his results.[45] Skeptic James Randi has stated that if Uri Geller is truly using his mind to perform these feats, "Uri Geller is doing it the hard way."[46]

Stage magicians note several methods of creating the illusion of a spoon spontaneously bending. Most common is the practice of misdirection, an underlying principle of many stage magic tricks.[47] There are many ways in which a bent spoon can be presented to an audience as to give the appearance it was manipulated using supernatural powers. One way is through brief moments of distraction in which a magician can physically bend a spoon unseen by the audience,[46] before gradually revealing the bend to create the illusion that the spoon is bending before the viewers' eyes.[46] Another way is to pre-bend the spoon, perhaps by heating it, reducing the amount of force that needed to be applied to bend it manually.[46]

During telepathic drawing demonstrations, Uri Geller claimed the ability to read the minds of subjects as they draw a picture. Although in these demonstrations Uri Geller cannot see the picture being drawn, Uri Geller is sometimes present in the room, and on these occasions can see the subjects as they draw. Critics argue this may allow Uri Geller to infer common shapes from pencil movement and sound, with the power of suggestion doing the rest.[47]

Watchmakers have noted that "many supposedly broken watches had merely been stopped by gummy oil, and simply holding them in the hand would warm the oil enough to soften it and allow watches to resume ticking."[35]

In 1978, Yasha Katz, who had been Uri Geller's manager in Britain, said that all performances by Uri Geller were simply stage tricks, and Uri Geller explained how they were really done.[48]

In November 2008, Uri Geller accepted an award during a convention of magicians, the Services to Promotion of Magic Award from the Berglas Foundation. In his acceptance speech, Uri Geller said that if Uri Geller hadn't had psychic powers then Uri Geller "must be the greatest" to have been able to fool journalists, scientists and Berglas himself.[49]
Scientific testing

Uri Geller's performances of drawing duplication and cutlery bending usually take place under informal conditions such as television interviews. During his early career Uri Geller allowed some scientists to investigate his claims. A study by Stanford Research Institute (now known as SRI International) conducted by researchers Harold E. Puthoff and Russell Targ concluded[50] that Uri Geller had performed successfully enough to warrant further serious study, and the "Uri Geller-effect" was coined to refer to the particular type of abilities they felt had been demonstrated.[51]

In An Encyclopedia of Claims, Frauds, and Hoaxes of the Occult and Supernatural, Randi wrote: "Hal Puthoff and Russell Targ, who studied Mr. Uri Geller at the Stanford Research Institute were aware, in one instance at least, that they were being shown a magician's trick by Uri Geller."[52] Moreover, Randi explained, "Their protocols for this 'serious' investigation of the powers claimed by Uri Geller were described by Dr. Ray Hyman, who investigated the project on behalf of the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency, as 'sloppy and inadequate.'"[52] Puthoff and Targ complained in a book about Hyman's procedures. They had suggested that Hyman and co. visit SRI and conduct their own experiments on Uri Geller. This they did, and Hyman and his two colleagues spent ‘a couple of hours’ performing their own experiments on Uri Geller. Hyman would not have observed any testing by Puthoff and Targ. Hyman's experiments were observed and video taped by Puthoff and Targ, who said that they were conducted in an ‘informal manner’ and ‘largely uncontrolled’.[53]

Critics of this testing include psychologists Dr. David Marks and Dr. Richard Kammann, who published a description of how Uri Geller could have cheated in an informal test of his so-called psychic powers in 1977.[54] Their 1978 article in Nature and 1980 book The Psychology of the Psychic (2nd ed. 2000) described how a normal explanation was possible for Uri Geller's alleged powers of telepathy. Marks and Kammann found evidence that while at SRI Uri Geller was allowed to peek through a hole in the laboratory wall separating Uri Geller from the drawings Uri Geller was being invited to reproduce. The drawings Uri Geller was asked to reproduce were placed on a wall opposite the peep hole which the investigators Targ and Puthoff had stuffed with cotton gauze. In addition to this error, the investigators had also allowed Uri Geller access to a two-way intercom enabling Uri Geller to listen to the investigators' conversation during the time when they were choosing and/or displaying the target drawings. These basic errors indicate the high importance of ensuring that psychologists, magicians or other people with an in-depth knowledge of perception, who are trained in methods for blocking sensory cues, be present during the testing of psychics.

In 1974, William E. Cox organized a committee within the Society of American Magicians to 'investigate false claims of ESP'. Uri Geller was tested by Cox, who was impressed by some positive test results which his scrutiny could find no fraud. For example, William E. Cox held a robust key with one finger on a table and watched as it bent with Uri Geller in view, and noticed no trickery.[55][56] Uri Geller was to be tested by other two magicians from the Society.

The Tonight Show

Uri Geller was unable to bend any tableware during a 1973 appearance on The Tonight Show in which the spoons Uri Geller was to bend had been pre-selected by Johnny Carson. When pressed by Carson, Uri Geller claimed that Uri Geller didn't feel "strong" that night. Earlier in his career, Carson had been an amateur stage magician, and Uri Geller consulted James Randi for advice on how to thwart potential trickery.[27] In 1993 Randi explained in "Secrets of the Psychics" for the NOVA television series: "I was asked to prevent any trickery. I told them to provide their own props and not to let Uri Geller or his people anywhere near them." A clip of this incident was televised on the NBC show Phenomenon. This two-minute clip has been widely circulated on the Internet since James Randi acquired permission to use it from NBC, and Carson paid for the videotape transfer.[57] In his television special Secrets of the Psychics, Uri Geller is shown failing at psychic "hand dowsing" (i.e. locating sealed vessels containing water without touching them), not metal bending.[clarification needed]

As part of a mass demonstration, Uri Geller’s photograph appeared on the cover of the magazine ESP with the caption “On Sept. 1, 1976 at 11pm E.D.T. THIS COVER CAN BEND YOUR KEYS." According to editor Howard Smukler, over 300 positive responses were received, many including bent objects and detailed descriptions of the surrounding circumstances including the bending of the key to the city of Providence, Rhode Island.[58]

Noel Edmonds was a television prankster who often used hidden cameras to record celebrities in Candid Camera-like situations for his television programme Noel's House Party. In 1996, Edmonds planned a stunt in which shelves would fall from the walls of a room while Uri Geller was in it. The cameras recorded footage of Uri Geller from angles Uri Geller was not expecting, and they showed Uri Geller grasping a spoon firmly with both hands as Uri Geller stood up to display a bend in it.[59]

In late 2006 and early 2007, Uri Geller starred in The Successor, an Israeli television show to find his "successor." During one segment, a compass was made to move, purportedly as a result of Uri Geller's paranormal abilities. However, critics say slow motion footage of the episode showed Uri Geller attaching a magnet to his thumb immediately prior to the compass's movement.[60][61] Uri Geller denied that this was sleight of hand, and said Uri Geller welcomed the "mystical aura" that the publicity gave him.[62]

Uri Geller performed the same compass trick in 2000 on ABC TV's The View, which was later duplicated by Randi on the same show the following week.[63]

Litigation

Uri Geller has litigated or threatened legal action against some of his critics with mixed success.[64] These included libel allegations against Randi and illusionist Gérard Majax.

In 1971, a mechanical engineering student called Uri Goldstein attended one of Uri Geller's shows, and subsequently sued the show's promoters for breach of contract. Uri Geller complained that Uri Geller had promised a demonstration of several psychic powers but had delivered only sleight-of-hand and stage tricks. The case came before the civil court in Beersheba.[65] Uri Geller was not present as the summons had been sent to the office of the promoter Miki Peled, who had ignored it as being trivial. Goldstein was awarded 27.5 lira (around $5) for breach of contract. Later, Goldstein admitted that Uri Geller went to the show specifically with the intent of suing to get his money back, and Uri Geller had already found a lawyer to represent him prior to attending the performance.[66][unreliable source?]

In 1992, Uri Geller filed a $15 million suit against Randi and CSICOP for statements made in a International Herald Tribune interview in April 9, 1991,[67][64] but Uri Geller was unsuccessful because the statute of limitations had expired.[64] In 1994 Uri Geller asked to dismiss without prejudice, and Uri Geller was ordered to pay $50,000 for the publisher's attorney fees. After not paying in time, Uri Geller was sanctioned with an additional $20,000. Due to the sanction, the suit was dismissed with prejudice, which, according to Randi's attorneys, means that Uri Geller can't pursue the same suit in any other jurisdiction.[64][68] In 1995 Uri Geller and Randi announced that this settled "the last remaining suits" between him and the CSICOP.[69] As part of the settlement, Uri Geller agreed not to pursue the payment of the 1990 Japanese ruling, in exchange for Prometheus Books inserting an errata on all future editions of Physics and Psychics, correcting erroneous statements made about Uri Geller.[69] According to Truzzi, Randi had spent all the money from his McArthur award, and his current attorney was working pro bono.[64]

In a 1989 interview with a Japanese newspaper, Randi was quoted as saying that Uri Geller had driven a scientist to "shoot himself in the head" after finding out that Uri Geller had fooled him. Randi afterwards claimed it was a metaphor lost in translation.[67] However, in a previous interview with a Canadian newspaper, Randi said essentially the same thing: "One scientist, a metallurgist, wrote a paper backing Uri Geller's claims that Uri Geller could bend metal. The scientist shot himself after I showed him how the key bending trick was done."[70] In 1990, Uri Geller sued Randi in a Japanese court over the statements Randi had made in the Japanese newspaper. Randi claims that Uri Geller could not afford to defend himself, therefore Uri Geller lost the case by default. The court declared Randi's statement an "insult" as opposed to libel, and awarded a judgement against Randi for Ą500,000 (at the time about US$4400) (according to Randi, only "one-third of one-percent of what he'd demanded"[71]). Randi feels that, since the charge of "insult" is only recognized in Chinese and Japanese law, Uri Geller was not required to pay.[69][72][71] Later in 1995 Uri Geller agreed not to pursue payment of the Japanese fine.[64] Randi maintains that Uri Geller has "never paid even one dollar or even one cent to anyone who ever sued" him. [72]
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Uri Geller vs. James Randi decision

In 1991, Uri Geller sued Timex Corporation and the advertising firm Fallon McElligott for millions in Uri Geller v. Fallon McElligott[73] over an ad showing a person bending forks and other items, but failing to stop a Timex watch. Uri Geller was sanctioned $149,000 for filing a frivolous lawsuit.[74]

In 1998, the Broadcasting Standards Commission in the United Kingdom rejected a complaint made by Uri Geller, saying that it "wasn't unfair to have magicians showing how they duplicate those "psychic feats'" on the UK Equinox episode "Secrets of the Super Psychics" (this film, made by Open Media, was known on first transmission as Secrets of the Psychics but should not be confused with the earlier NOVA film of the same name).[75] The full text of the BSC adjudication is available online here[76].

Uri Geller also considered a suit against IKEA over a furniture line featuring bent legs that was called the "Uri" line.[77]

In November 2000, Uri Geller sued video game company Nintendo for Ł60 million (the equivalent of US $100 million) over the Pokémon character "Yungerer," localized in English as "Kadabra", which Uri Geller claimed was an unauthorised appropriation of his identity.[78][79] The Pokémon in question has psychic abilities and carries a bent spoon. Uri Geller also claimed that the star on Kadabra's forehead and the lightning patterns on its abdomen are symbolisms popular with the Waffen SS of Nazi Germany.[79] The katakana for the character's name, ユンゲラー, is visually similar to the transliteration of Uri Geller's own name into Japanese (ユリゲラー). Uri Geller is quoted as saying: "Nintendo turned me into an evil, occult Pokémon character. Nintendo stole my identity by using my name and my signature image." The lawsuit was thrown out of court.

In 2007, Uri Geller issued a DMCA notice to YouTube to remove a video uploaded by Brian Sapient of the "Rational Response Squad" which was excerpted from an episode of the Nova television program titled "Secrets of the Psychics". The video included footage of Uri Geller failing to perform. In response, Sapient contacted the Electronic Frontier Foundation, issued a DMCA counter-notice, and sued Uri Geller for misuse of the DMCA. Uri Geller's company, Explorologist, filed a counter-suit. Both cases were settled out of court; a monetary settlement was paid (but it is not clear by and to whom) and the eight seconds of footage owned by Explorologist were licensed under a noncommercial Creative Commons license.[80]
Lamb Island, Scotland

On 11 February 2009, Uri Geller purchased the uninhabited 100 yard-by-50 yard Lamb Island off the eastern coast of Scotland, previously known for its witch trials, and beaches that Robert Louis Stevenson is said to have described in his novel Treasure Island. Uri Geller claims that buried on the island is Egyptian treasure, brought there by Scota, the half-sister of Tutankhamen 3,500 years ago and that Uri Geller will find the treasure through dowsing. Uri Geller also claimed to have strengthened the mystical powers of the island by burying there a crystal orb once belonging to Albert Einstein.[81][82]
Bibliography

Books by Uri Geller, sold as fiction

Ella. Martinez Roca, March 1999. ISBN 0-7472-5920-8
Shawn. Goodyer Associates Ltd. ISBN 1-871406-09-9
Pampini. World Authors, 1980. ISBN 0-89975-000-1
Dead Cold. ISBN 0-7472-5921-6

Books by Uri Geller, sold as nonfiction

My Story. Henry Holt & Company, Inc. (April 1975) ISBN 0-03-030196-3
Uri Geller and Guy Lyon Playfair. The Uri Geller Effect. Grafton, Jonathan Cape, Hunter Publishing, (1988) ISBN 0-586-07430-9 ISBN 978-0-586-07430-5
Uri Geller and Rabbi Shmuley Boteach. Confessions of a Psychic and a Rabbi. (Foreword by Deepak Chopra) Element Books Ltd (March 2000) ISBN 1-86204-724-3
Uri Geller and Lulu Appleton. Mind Medicine. Element Books Ltd (October 1999) ISBN 1-86204-477-5
Uri Geller's Little Book of Mind Power. Robson Books (August 1999) ISBN 1-86105-193-X
Uri Geller's Mind Power Kit. Penguin USA (1996) ISBN 0-670-87138-9
Uri Geller's Fortune Secrets. (Edited with Simon Turnbull) Psychic Hotline Pty Limited (21 May 1987) ISBN 0-7221-3812-1
Unorthodox Encounters. Chrysalis Books (2001) ISBN 1-86105-366-5

Books about Uri Geller

Colin, Jim. The Strange Story of Uri Geller. Raintree, 1975 ISBN 0-8172-1037-7 (48 pages)
Ebon, Martin. The Amazing Uri Geller. Signet 1975. ISBN 0-451-06475-5
Ben Harris Uri Gellerism Revealed. Micky Hades International 1985 ISBN 0-919230-92-X
Margolis, Jonathan. Uri Geller Magician or Mystic?. Welcome Rain Publishers / Orion Publishing Group ISBN 0-7528-1006-5
Gardner, Martin. Confessions of a Psychic. (under the pseudonym "Uriah Fuller" (an allusion to Uri Geller) that purport to explain "how fake psychics perform seemingly incredible paranormal feats.") Karl Fulves, 1975.
Gardner, Martin. Further Confessions of a Psychic. (under the pseudonym "Uriah Fuller") 1980.
Panati, Charles. The Uri Geller Papers. Houghton Mifflin.
Puharich, Andrija, Uri: A Journal of the Mystery of Uri Geller. Anchor Press / Doubleday
Randi, James, The Truth About Uri Geller. (former editions were titled The Magic of Uri Geller). New York: Prometheus Books, Ballintine, 1982. ISBN 0-87975-199-1
Taylor, John G.. Superminds. Macmillian/Picador
Wilhelm, John. In Search of Superman. Pocket Books, 1976. ISBN 0-671-80590-8
Wilson, Colin. The Uri Geller Phenomenon. Aldus Books, 1976. ISBN 0-7172-8105-1

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    Service To Magic Award [2], accessed 3rd December 2008. "Lets say I wasn’t real, lets say for the last years I’ve fooled the journalists, the scientists, my family, my friends... You... If I managed to fool them, I must be the greatest...I cannot bend spoons like some of the magicians, you, can, it blows my mind when I see that, I have no idea. I had the idea and cheekiness to call it psychic, in fact all I wanted was to be rich and famous."
    Targ R & Puthoff H, "Information transmission under conditions of sensory shielding," Nature, 251, 18 October 1974, pp.602–607.
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    c d e f Marcello Truzzi (May 1996), Psi Researcher, the Parapsychological Association newsletter (21), archived from the original on 2th June 2008, http://web.archive.org/web/20080602021158/http://66.221.71.68/psir.htm mirror
    James Randi's The Truth About Uri Gelle, Prometheus Books, 1982, pp. viii (right before the author's notes), 198, 215. Randi quotes "Legerdemain ruled breach of contract", Jerusalem Post, 5th Jan 1971. Quoted in An Apology from James Randi UriUri Geller.com.
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    Uri Geller, Uri. "Uri Geller Libel Suit Dismissed". Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Archived from the original on 2008-04-03. Retrieved 2006-12-08. "Self proclaimed "psychic" Uri Geller had to dismiss a multi-million dollar libel suit and has to pay over $20,000 in sanctions in an action Uri Geller brought against skeptical book publisher Prometheus Books of Amherst, New York."
    c "PSI Researcher". Uri-Uri Geller.com. Retrieved 2010-03-07.
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    (No. 90-Civ-2839, 22 July 1991)
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    Margolis, Jonathan (1999-12-29). "Nintendo faces Ł60m writ from Uri Geller". London: Guardian Unlimited. Retrieved 2007-07-10.
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    Sapient v. Uri Geller, Electronic Frontier Foundation
    Wall Street Journal, August 23, 2010, 1. The article quoted Uri Geller as saying that "I'm certain there are ancient Egyptian artifacts there. It's only a matter of time until we find them."
    "Spoon-bender buys Scottish island". BBC News. 2009-02-11.

 
 

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