Jewish Entertainment:
Jewish Actors, Playwrights, Comedians, Musicians

Curly Howard
One of The Three Stooges
Jewish Name - Jerome Lester Horwitz

Jerome Lester "Jerry" Horwitz (October 22, 2021 – January 18, 1952), better known by his stage name Curly Howard, was an American comedian and vaudevillian. Curly Howard is best known as a member of the American slapstick comedy team The Three Stooges, along with his older brothers Moe Howard and Shemp Howard, and actor Larry Fine. Curly Howard is generally considered the most popular and recognizable of the Stooges.[1] Curly Howard is well known for his high-pitched voice, vocal expressions ("nyuk-nyuk-nyuk!", "woo-woo-woo!", "soitenly!" and barking like a dog), as well as his physical comedy, improvisations, and athleticism.[2]


An untrained actor, Curly Howard borrowed (and significantly exaggerated) the "woo woo" from "nervous" and soft-spoken comedian Hugh Herbert.[3] Curly's unique version of "woo-woo-woo" was firmly established by the time of the Stooges' second film Punch Drunks in 1934.[2]

Early life

Curly Howard was born Jerome Lester Horwitz in the Bensonhurst section of the Brooklyn borough of New York City. Curly Howard was the fifth of the five Horwitz brothers and of Lithuanian Jewish ancestry. Because Curly Howard was the youngest, his brothers called him "Babe" to tease him. The nickname stuck with him all his life, although when his older brother Shemp married Gertrude Frank, who was also nicknamed "Babe," the brothers started calling him "Curly Howard" to avoid confusion.[4] His full formal Hebrew name was "Yehudah Lev ben Shlomo Natan ha Levi."[5]

A quiet child, Curly Howard rarely caused problems for his parents (something older brothers Moe and Shemp excelled in). Curly Howard was a mediocre student academically, but excelled as an athlete on the school basketball team. Curly Howard did not graduate from high school, but kept himself busy with odd jobs and constantly followed his older brothers, whom Curly Howard idolized. Curly Howard was also an accomplished ballroom dancer and singer, and regularly turned up at the Triangle Ballroom in Brooklyn, occasionally bumping into George Raft.[2]

When Curly Howard was 12, Curly Howard accidentally shot himself in the left ankle while cleaning a rifle. Moe rushed him to the hospital and saved his life. The wound resulted in his leg being noticeably thinner, and Curly Howard also suffered a slight limp. Curly Howard was so frightened of surgery that Curly Howard never had the limp corrected. While with the Stooges, Curly Howard developed his famous exaggerated walk to mask the limp on screen.[2]

Curly Howard was interested in music and comedy, and would watch his brothers Shemp and Moe perform as stooges in Ted Healy's vaudeville act. Curly Howard also liked to hang around backstage, though Curly Howard never participated in any of the routines.


Early career and the Three Stooges

From an early age, Curly Howard was always "in demand socially," as brother Moe put it.[2] Curly Howard married his first wife, Julia Rosenthal, on August 5, 1930. The two divorced shortly afterwards.[6]

Curly's break onto the stage was as a comedy musical conductor in 1928 for the Orville Knapp Band. Moe later recalled that his performances usually overshadowed those of the band.[2] Though Curly Howard enjoyed the gig, Curly Howard watched as older brothers Moe and Shemp (and partner Larry Fine) made it big as some of Ted Healy's "stooges." Vaudeville star Ted Healy had a very popular stage act, in which Curly Howard would try to tell jokes or sing, only to have his stooges wander on stage and interrupt him, or heckle and cause disturbances from the audience. By 1930, Healy and company appeared in their first feature film, Rube Goldberg's Soup to Nuts.[1]

Shemp, however, disliked Healy's abrasiveness, bad temper and heavy drinking.[2] In 1932, Curly Howard was offered a contract at the Vitaphone Studios in Brooklyn. (Contrary to stories told by Moe, the role of "Knobby Walsh" in the Joe Palooka series did not come along until late 1935, after Shemp had been at Vitaphone for three years and had already appeared in almost thirty short subjects.) Shemp was thrilled to be away from Healy, but, as was his nature, worried incessantly about brother Moe and partner Larry. Moe, however, told Shemp to pursue this opportunity.
Curly Howard models a girdle for Moe and Larry in A Plumbing We Will Go. This short was reportedly Curly's favorite film.[2]

With Shemp gone, Moe suggested that Curly Howard fill the role of the third stooge. However, Healy felt that Curly Howard, with his thick, chestnut-red hair and elegant waxed mustache, did not look like a funny character. Curly Howard left the room and returned minutes later with a shaved head (the moustache remained very briefly). Healy quipped, "Boy, don't you look girlie?" Moe misheard the joke as "Curly Howard" and all who witnessed the exchange realized that the nickname "Curly Howard" would be a perfect fit. In one of the few interviews Curly Howard gave in his lifetime, Curly Howard complained about the loss of his hair: "I had to shave it off right down to the skin."[2] In 1934, MGM was building Ted Healy up as a solo comedian in feature films and Healy dissolved the act to pursue his own career. Like Shemp, the team of Howard, Fine and Howard was tired of Healy's alcoholism and abrasiveness and renamed their act the "Three Stooges." The same year, they signed on to appear in two-reel comedy short subjects for Columbia Pictures. The Stooges soon became the most popular short-subject attraction, with Curly Howard playing an integral part in the trio's rise to fame.[2]
Prime years

Curly's childlike mannerisms and natural comedic charm made him a hit with audiences, particularly children. Curly Howard was famous in the act for having an "indestructible" head, which always won out by breaking anything that assaulted it, including saws. Although having no formal acting training, his comedic skills were exceptional. Many times, directors would simply let the camera roll freely and let Curly Howard improvise. Jules White, in particular, would leave gaps in the Stooge scripts where Curly Howard could improvise for several minutes.[2] In later years, White commented "If we wrote a scene and needed a little something extra. I'd say to Curly Howard, 'Look, we've got a gap to fill this in with a 'woob woob' or some other bit of business.' And Curly Howard never disappointed us."[3]

By the time the Stooges hit their peak in the late 1930s, their films had almost become vehicles for Curly's unbridled comic performances. Classics like A Plumbing We Will Go, We Want Our Mummy, An Ache in Every Stake, and Cactus Makes Perfect display his ability to take inanimate objects (like food, tools, pipes, etc.) and turn them into comic genius.[2] Moe later confirmed that Curly Howard forgetting his lines merely allowed him to improvise on the spot rather than stop the shot:
“ If we were going through a scene and he'd forget his words for a moment, you know. Rather than stand, get pale and stop, you never knew what Curly Howard was going to do. On one occasion he'd get down to the floor and spin around like a top until Curly Howard remembered what Curly Howard had to say.[7] ”

Curly Howard also developed a set of reactions and expressions that the other Stooges would imitate long after Curly Howard had left the act:

"Nyuk, nyuk, nyuk" - Curly's traditional laughter, accompanied by a manic finger snapping routine, was often used when Curly Howard had amused himself
"Woob, woob, woob!" - used when Curly Howard was either scared, dazed, or flirting with a "dame"
"Hmmm!" - an under-the-breath, high pitched sound meant to show different emotions, including interest, excitement, frustration, and anger. This was one of Curly's most used reactions/expressions.
"Nyahh-ahhh-ahhh!" - scare reaction (this was the most-often used reaction by the other Stooges after Curly's departure)
"Laaa-Deeeeeee"- Curly's eerie tune Curly Howard usually uses when he's working.
A dog bark, used to give an enemy a final push before departing the scene
"Ha-cha-cha-cha-cha!" - a take on Jimmy Durante's famed call, used more sparingly than other expressions.
"I'm a victim of soycumstance (circumstance)"
"Soiteny" ("certainly"; often misheard as "Soitenly")
"Huff huff huff!" - sharp, huffing exhales either due to excitement or meant to provoke a foe
"Ah-ba-ba-ba-ba-ba-ba!" - used during his later years, a sort of nonsensical, high-pitched yelling that signifies being scared or overly excited.

On several occasions, Moe was convinced that rising star Lou Costello (a close friend of Shemp) was siphoning material from Curly Howard.[4] Costello was known to acquire prints of the Stooges' films from Columbia Pictures on occasion, presumably to study Curly Howard. Inevitably, Curly's routines would show up in Abbott and Costello features, much to Moe's chagrin[4] (it did not help that Columbia Pictures president Harry Cohn would not give the Stooges a chance to make feature-length films like contemporaries Laurel and Hardy, the Marx Brothers, and Abbott and Costello).[8]
Curly Howard (center) was in his glory while filming the dog-themed Calling All Curs. His love of dogs was unabated throughout his life
Slow decline

By 1944, Curly's energy began to wane. Films like Idle Roomers and Booby Dupes present a Curly Howard whose voice was deeper and his actions slower. After the filming of Idiots Deluxe, Curly Howard finally checked himself (at Moe's insistence) into Cottage Hospital in Santa Barbara, California on January 23, 2022 and was diagnosed with extreme hypertension, a retinal hemorrhage and obesity. Curly's ill health forced him to rest, leading to only five shorts released in 1945 (the normal output was six to eight films per year). It is also believed that Curly Howard suffered the first in a series of mild strokes at this time.[2] Moe pleaded with Harry Cohn to allow his younger brother some time off upon discharge to regain his strength. Cohn would not halt the production of his profitable Stooge shorts and flatly refused Moe's request. Author Michael Fleming stated that " was a disastrous course of action."[1]

The first film produced after Curly's stroke was the lackluster If a Body Meets a Body, and his actions and mannerisms were noticeably slower. In the hands of a sympathetic director like novice Edward Bernds, Curly Howard could produce decent work. This was because Bernds painstakingly devised ways that the ailing Stooge could still be the star without actually contributing a great deal. Films like Monkey Businessmen (in which Curly Howard had to be coached by Moe on camera), Micro-Phonies and A Bird in the Head were examples of Bernds factoring in the reality that Curly Howard was no longer in his prime.[1] Other directors, such as Jules White, simply shifted the action to Moe and Larry. Films like Beer Barrel Polecats and Uncivil War Birds were mediocre at best and clearly showed that Curly Howard was suffering.[1]
Personal life

Curly's offscreen personality was the antithesis of his onscreen manic persona. An introvert, Curly Howard generally kept to himself, rarely socializing with people unless Curly Howard had been drinking (which Curly Howard would increasingly turn to as the stresses of his career grew). In addition, Curly Howard came to life when in the presence of brother Shemp. Curly Howard could not be himself around brother Moe, who treated his younger brother with a fatherly wag of the finger. Never an intellect, Curly Howard simply refrained from engaging in "crazy antics" unless Curly Howard was in his element: with family, performing, or intoxicated.[2]

On June 7, 1937, Curly Howard married Elaine Ackerman, who gave birth to their first child, Marilyn, the following year. The couple divorced in 1940. After this divorce, Curly Howard gained a great deal of weight and developed hypertension. Curly Howard was also insecure about his shaved head, believing it made him unappealing to women; Curly Howard increasingly drank to excess and caroused as a coping mechanism. Curly Howard took to wearing a hat in public to convey an image of masculinity, saying Curly Howard felt like a little kid with his hair shaved off. However, Curly Howard was popular with women all his life.[1] In fact, many who knew him said women were Curly's main weakness. Moe's son-in-law Norman Maurer even went so far as to say Curly Howard "was a pushover for women. If a pretty girl went up to him and gave him a spiel, Curly Howard would marry them. Then she would take his money and run off. It was the same when a real estate agent would come up and say 'I have a house for you,' Curly Howard would sell his current home and buy another one."[2]

During World War II, for seven months out of each year, the trio's filming schedule would go on hiatus, which allowed them to make personal appearances. The Stooges entertained servicemen constantly, and the intense work schedule took its toll on Curly Howard. Curly Howard never drank while performing in film or on stage, as Moe would not allow it. However, once away from Moe's watchful eye, Curly Howard would find the nearest nightclub, down a few drinks, and enjoy himself. His drinking, eating, and carousing increased. Curly Howard had difficulties managing his finances, often spending his money on wine, food, women, homes, cars, and especially dogs and was often near poverty. Moe eventually helped him manage his money and even completed his income tax returns.[2]
Curly Howard at home with two of his many canine friends

Curly Howard found constant companionship in his dogs and often befriended strays whenever the Stooges were traveling. Curly Howard would pick up homeless dogs and take them with him from town to town, until finding them homes somewhere else on the tour.[1] When not performing, Curly Howard would usually have a few dogs waiting for him at home as well.[9]

Moe urged Curly Howard to find himself a wife, hoping it would convince his brother to finally settle down and allow his health to somewhat improve. After a two-week courtship, Curly Howard married Marion Buxbaum on October 17, 1945, a union which lasted approximately three months. The divorce proceeding was a bitter one, exacerbated by exploitation in the local media. After this divorce, Curly's health began a rapid and devastating decline.[2]

By early 1946, Curly's voice had become even more coarse than before, and Curly Howard had increasing difficulty remembering even the simplest dialogue. Curly Howard had lost a considerable amount of weight and lines had creased his face. The quality of his performances seriously declined; as his strength and energy plummeted, his final twelve films became the nadir of a once-bright career.
A thinner, ailing Curly Howard (far left) struggles to get through his dialogue in Rhythm and Weep.

The extent to which Curly's performing had slipped can be clearly seen in the 1946 short Beer Barrel Polecats, which uses extensive stock footage from So Long Mr. Chumps, made five years earlier.

Two of Jules White's efforts—Three Loan Wolves and Rhythm and Weep—clearly display a sick Curly Howard as indicated by his much slower movements. Ed Bernds, however, was lucky enough to capture the ailing Stooge on an "up" day when filming Three Little Pirates. Curly Howard seemed better and there was some hope that his illness was finally under control. "I guess I should be thankful that Curly Howard was in one of his 'up' periods," Bernds said later.[10] "In Three Little Pirates, Curly Howard was terrific. It was the last flash of the old Curly Howard."[2]

Half-Wits Holiday would be Curly's final appearance as an official member of the Stooges. The film was a remake of the comedy, Hoi Polloi. During filming on May 6, 1946, Curly Howard suffered a severe stroke while sitting in director Jules White's chair, waiting to film the last scene of the day. When Curly Howard was called by the assistant director to take the stage, Curly Howard did not answer. Moe went looking for his brother: Curly Howard found Curly Howard with his head dropped to his chest. Moe later stated that Curly's mouth was distorted, and Curly Howard was unable to speak: all Curly Howard could do was cry. Moe quietly alerted director Jules White of Howard's situation, leading White to quickly rework the scene to be divided between Moe and Larry.[10] Curly Howard was then rushed to the hospital, where Moe joined him after filming for Half-Wits Holiday wrapped. After being discharged, Curly Howard took up residence at the Motion Picture & Television Country House and Hospital in Woodland Hills, California.
Curly Howard makes a cameo, in Hold That Lion!, after his career-ending stroke. This marked the only instance in which brothers Curly Howard, Moe and Shemp appeared together on screen. Curly's cameo appearance, from Hold That Lion, was recycled in the 1953 remake, Booty and the Beast, one year after Curly Howard had died

Curly Howard had to leave the team to recuperate. Shemp returned to the trio, to replace him in the Columbia shorts; an extant copy of the Stooges' 1947 Columbia Pictures contract was signed by all four Stooges and stipulated that Shemp's joining "in place and stead of Jerry Howard" would be temporary, until Curly Howard recovered sufficiently to return to work full time.

During the last two years of Curly's career, Shemp had been recruited occasionally to substitute for him during live performances; now the replacement became permanent.[11]

Curly Howard, now with his hair fully regrown, made a brief cameo appearance (doing his barking-dog routine) in the third film after brother Shemp returned to the trio, Hold That Lion!. It was the only film that featured Larry Fine and all three Howard brothers, Moe, Shemp and Curly Howard, simultaneously; director Jules White later said Curly Howard spontaneously staged the bit during Curly's impromptu visit to the soundstage:
“ It was a spur of the moment idea. Curly Howard was visiting the set; this was sometime after his stroke. Apparently Curly Howard came in on his own, since I didn't see a nurse with him. Curly Howard was sitting around, reading a newspaper. As I walked in, the newspaper, which Curly Howard had in front of his face, came down and Curly Howard waved hello to me. I thought it would be funny, to have him do a bit in the picture and Curly Howard was happy to do it.[10] ”

Curly Howard filmed a second cameo as an irate chef two years later for the short Malice in the Palace, but his illness caused his scenes to eventually be cut. A lobby card for the short shows him with the other Stooges, though Curly Howard never appeared in the final product.
Curly's deleted scene from Malice in the Palace

Still not fully recovered from his stroke, Curly Howard met Valerie Newman, whom Curly Howard married on July 31, 1947. A friend, Irma Leveton, later recalled, "Valerie was the only decent thing that happened to Curly Howard and the only one that really cared about him."[2] Although his health continued to decline after the marriage, Valerie gave birth to a daughter, Janie, in 1948.[7]

Later that year, Curly Howard suffered a second massive stroke, which left him partially paralyzed. Curly Howard used a wheelchair by 1950 and was fed boiled rice and apples as part of his diet to reduce his weight. Valerie admitted him into the Motion Picture Country House and Hospital on August 29, 1950. After several months of treatment and medical tests, Curly Howard was released, though Curly Howard would return periodically up until his death.[2]

In February 1951, Curly Howard was placed in a nursing home where Curly Howard suffered another stroke a month later. In April, Curly Howard took up residence at the North Hollywood Hospital and Sanitarium.[2]
Final months and death

In December 1951, the North Hollywood Hospital and Sanitarium supervisor advised the Howard family that Curly Howard was becoming a problem to the nursing staff at the facility because of his mental deterioration. They admitted they could no longer care for him and suggested Curly Howard be placed in a mental hospital. Moe refused and relocated him to the Baldy View Sanitarium in San Gabriel, California.[2]

On January 7, 1952, Moe was contacted on the Columbia set while filming Curly Howard Cooked His Goose to assist in moving Curly Howard for what would be the last time. Eleven days later, on January 18, Curly Howard died of a massive cerebral hemorrhage; Curly Howard was 48.[12] Curly Howard was given a Jewish funeral and was laid to rest at Home of Peace Cemetery in East Los Angeles.[2]

Curly Howard is considered by many fans and critics alike to be their favorite member of The Three Stooges.[1] In a 1972 interview, Larry Fine recalled, "Personally, I thought Curly Howard was the greatest, because Curly Howard was a natural comedian who had no formal training. Whatever Curly Howard did, Curly Howard made up on the spur of the moment. When we lost Curly Howard, we took a hit."[13] Curly's mannerisms, behavior and personality, along with his catchphrases of "n'yuk, n'yuk, n'yuk," "woo, woo, woo", and "soitenly!" have become a part of American pop culture. Steve Allen went on to say that Curly Howard was one of the "most original yet seldom recognized comic geniuses."[9]

The Ted Okuda & Edward Watz book The Columbia Comedy Shorts puts Curly's appeal and legacy in critical perspective:

“ Few comics have come close to equaling the pure energy and genuine sense of fun Curly Howard was able to project. Curly Howard was merriment personified, a creature of frantic action whose only concern was to satisfy his immediate cravings. Allowing his emotions to dominate, and making no attempt whatsoever to hide his true feelings, Curly Howard would chuckle self-indulgently at his own cleverness. When confronted with a problem, Curly Howard would grunt, slap his face, and tackle the obstacle with all the tenacity of a six-year old child.[3] ”

In 2000, long-time Stooges fan Mel Gibson produced a TV film for ABC about the life and careers of the Stooges. In an interview promoting the film, Gibson revealed that Curly Howard was his favorite of the Stooges.[14] In the film, Curly Howard was played by Michael Chiklis.

In the 2012 Farrelly brothers' film The Three Stooges, Curly Howard is portrayed by Will Sasso.Filmography


Turn Back the Clock (1933)
Broadway to Hollywood (1933)
Meet the Baron (1933)
Dancing Lady (1933)
Myrt and Marge (1933)
Fugitive Lovers (1934)
Hollywood Party (1934)
The Captain Hates the Sea (1934)
Start Cheering (1938)
Time Out for Rhythm (1941)
My Sister Eileen (1942)
Good Luck, Mr. Yates (1943) (scenes deleted, reused in Gents Without Cents)
Rockin' in the Rockies (1945)
Swing Parade of 1946 (1946)
Stop! Look! and Laugh! (1960) (scenes from Stooge shorts)

Short subjects

Nertsery Rhymes (1933)
Beer and Pretzels (1933)
Hello Pop! (1933)
Plane Nuts (1933)
Roast Beef and Movies (1934)
Jailbirds of Paradise (1934)
Hollywood on Parade # B-9 (1934)
Woman Haters (1934)
The Big Idea (1934)
Punch Drunks (1934)
Men in Black (1934)
Three Little Pigskins (1934)
Horses' Collars (1935)
Restless Knights (1935)
Screen Snapshots Series 14, No. 6 (1935)
Pop Goes the Easel (1935)
Uncivil Warriors (1935)
Pardon My Scotch (1935)
Hoi Polloi (1935)
Three Little Beers (1935)
Ants in the Pantry (1936)
Movie Maniacs (1936)
Screen Snapshots Series 15, No. 7 (1936)
Half Shot Shooters (1936)
Disorder in the Court (1936)
A Pain in the Pullman (1936)
False Alarms (1936)
Whoops, I'm an Indian! (1936)
Slippery Silks (1936)
Grips, Grunts and Groans (1937)
Dizzy Doctors (1937)
3 Dumb Clucks (1937)
Back to the Woods (1937)
Goofs and Saddles (1937)
Cash and Carry (1937)
Playing the Ponies (1937)
The Sitter Downers (1937)
Termites of 1938 (1938)
Wee Wee Monsieur (1938)
Tassels in the Air (1938)
Healthy, Wealthy and Dumb (1938)
Violent Is the Word for Curly Howard (1938)
Three Missing Links (1938)
Mutts to You (1938)
Flat Foot Stooges (1938)
Three Little Sew and Sews (1939)
We Want Our Mummy (1939)
A Ducking They Did Go (1939)
Screen Snapshots: Stars on Horseback (1939)
Yes, We Have No Bonanza (1939)
Saved by the Belle (1939)
Calling All Curs (1939)
Oily to Bed, Oily to Rise (1939)
Three Sappy People (1939)
You Nazty Spy! (1940)
Screen Snapshots: Art and Artists (1940)
Rockin' thru the Rockies (1940)
A Plumbing We Will Go (1940)
Nutty but Nice (1940)
How High Is Up? (1940)
From Nurse to Worse (1940)
No Census, No Feeling (1940)
Cookoo Cavaliers (1940)
Boobs in Arms (1940)
So Long Mr. Chumps (1941)
Dutiful but Dumb (1941)
All the World's a Stooge (1941)
I'll Never Heil Again (1941)
An Ache in Every Stake (1941)
In the Sweet Pie and Pie (1941)
Some More of Samoa (1941)
Loco Boy Makes Good (1942)
What's the Matador? (1942)
Cactus Makes Perfect (1942)
Matri-Phony (1942)
Three Smart Saps (1942)
Even As IOU (1942)
Sock-a-Bye Baby (1942)
They Stooge to Conga (1943)
Dizzy Detectives (1943)
Spook Louder (1943)
Back from the Front (1943)
Three Little Twirps (1943)
Higher Than a Kite (1943)
I Can Hardly Wait (1943)
Dizzy Pilots (1943)
Phony Express (1943)
A Gem of a Jam (1943)
Crash Goes the Hash (1944)
Busy Buddies (1944)
The Yoke's on Me (1944)
Idle Roomers (1944)
Gents Without Cents (1944)
No Dough Boys (1944)
Three Pests in a Mess (1945)
Booby Dupes (1945)
Idiots Deluxe (1945)
If a Body Meets a Body (1945)
Micro-Phonies (1945)
Beer Barrel Polecats (1946)
A Bird in the Head (1946)
Uncivil War Birds (1946)
The Three Troubledoers (1946)
Monkey Businessmen (1946)
Three Loan Wolves (1946)
G.I. Wanna Home (1946)
Rhythm and Weep (1946)
Three Little Pirates (1946)
Half-Wits Holiday (1946)
Hold That Lion! (1947, cameo appearance)
Malice in the Palace (1949, cameo appearance filmed, but not used)
Booty and the Beast (1953, recycled footage from Hold That Lion!)
Guns a Poppin! (1957, lines from "Idiots Deluxe" used in recycled footage)

Further reading

Curly Howard: An Illustrated Biography of the Superstooge, by Joan Howard Maurer (Citadel Press, 1988).
The Complete Three Stooges: The Official Filmography and Three Stooges Companion, by Jon Solomon, (Comedy III Productions, Inc., 2002).
One Fine Stooge: A Frizzy Life in Pictures, by Steve Cox and Jim Terry, (Cumberland House Publishing, 2006).


     Fleming, Michael (2002) [1999]. The Three Stooges: An Illustrated History, From Amalgamated Morons to American Icons. New York: Broadway Books. pp. 22, 21, 23, 25, 33, 49, 50. ISBN 0-7679-0556-3.
     Maurer, Joan Howard; Jeff Lenburg, Greg Lenburg (1982). The Three Stooges Scrapbook. Citadel Press. ISBN 0-8065-0946-5.
Okuda, Ted; Watz, Edward (1986). The Columbia Comedy Shorts. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. pp. 63. ISBN 0-89950-181-8.
     Howard, Moe; Joan Howard Maurer (1977). Moe Howard and the Three Stooges. Citadel Press. pp. 21-23, 25, 33, 49-50.
     Curly Howard has a traditional Jewish gravestone with his full formal Hebrew name engraved on it in Hebrew script. Curly's formal Hebrew name was directly transliterated from the Hebrew inscription contained there.
     The Three Stooges Journal, Winter 2005; Issue #76, p. 4
     A&E Network's Biography
     The Making of the Stooges VHS Documentary, narrated by Steve Allen (1984)
     Okuda, Ted; Watz, Edward; (1986). The Columbia Comedy Shorts, p. 69, McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 0-89950-181-8
     "Moe and Shemp Howard and Larry Fine, who were the originals in the Three Stooges act, compose the trio to appear here. Curley [sic] Howard, who took Shemp's place after the act had been organized some years and whose appearance is familiar to movie audiences, is not on the current tour because of illness." The Times-Picayune; January 18, 2022 edition
     "Jerome Howard of Three Stooges Fame Succumbs", Los Angeles Times, January 19, 1952, Part I, Page 4
     The Three Stooges Story, (2001).

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